Debian Squeeze Configurare un server SSL con Apache - Php5 e rendere visibile la public_html della nostra Home

Sab, 26/02/2011 - 15:42

Debian Squeeze Configurare un server SSL con Apache - Php5 e rendere visibile la public_html della nostra Home

Inviato da rufus 0 commenti

Già da Debian lenny, per poter creare i certificati non è possibile utilizzare apache2-ssl-certificate, perchè non è presente nei pacchetti, ma niente di preoccupante, perchè possiamo benissimo utilizzare openssl.
Quindi bisogna installare openssl con un bel #apt-get install openssl, fatto questo passiamo alla creazione dei certificati. Non essendo un ente autorizzato possiamo generare solo certifica self-signed i quali funzionano correttamente, ma generano dei warning che verranno mostrati nel browser. Adesso vediamo che comando serve per creare questo certificato, andiamo per passi.

Debian Squeezecome configurare un server SSL con Apache - Php5 e rendere visibile la public_html della nostra Home

1° - Creare il certificato con questo comando:

openssl req $@ -new -x509 -days 365 -nodes -out /etc/apache2/apache.pem -keyout /etc/apache2/apache.pem,

quando si esegue questo comando nel terminale si avrà un output del genere:

Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
	...........++++++
	...........++++++
	writing new private key to '/etc/apache2/ssl/apache.pem'
	-----
	You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
	into your certificate request.
	What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
	There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
	For some fields there will be a default value,
	If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
	-----

Come indicato, vi sarà chiesto una serie di domande:

Country: Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:
 
	State: State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:
 
	City:  Locality Name (eg, city) []:
 
	Organization: Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]: 
 
	Unit:  Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
 
	Name:  Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:	
 
	Email: Email Address []:

Dopo aver risposto a queste domande. Ti verrà ricollocato il prompt
dei comandi e il certificato sarà collocato, come indicato, in
/etc/apache2/apache.pem.
Si è creato cosi il certificato.

2° - Adesso dopo aver creato il file apache.pem diamo questo comando
#chmod 600 /etc/apache2/apache.pem

3° - Adesso bisogna bisogna avviare il modulo ssl con questo comando

# a2enmod ssl

dopo aver eseguito questo comando il prompt di shell vi dirà che per attivare il modulo ssl bisogna riavviare apache2, niente di preoccupante eseguite questo comando:

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

In questo modo si riavvia apache2. Adesso che il nostro ssl è stato creato e apache2 riavviato dobbiamo creare il nostro Virtual Hosts.

Creazione del Virtual Hosts sulla porta 443

In /etc/apache2/sites-availabe/default-ssl è presente un script già configurato, ma dopo tante prove ho notato che non so perchè se inseriscono per il certificato questo script da errori nella visualizzazione del certificato quindi il nostro Virtual Host non funziona. Allora cosa fare? Io ho fatto questo, ho commentato tutto lo script in questo modo:

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
 
 
#<VirtualHost _default_:443>
	#ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
 
	#DocumentRoot /var/www
	#<Directory />
		#Options FollowSymLinks
		#AllowOverride None
	#</Directory>
	#<Directory /var/www/>
		#Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
		#AllowOverride None
		#Order allow,deny
		#allow from all
	#</Directory>
 
	#ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
	#<Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
		#AllowOverride None
		#Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
		#Order allow,deny
		#Allow from all
	#</Directory>
 
	#ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
 
	# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
	# alert, emerg.
	#LogLevel warn
 
	#CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ssl_access.log combined
 
	#Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
	#<Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
		#Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
		#AllowOverride None
		#Order deny,allow
		#Deny from all
		#Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128
	#</Directory>
 
	#   SSL Engine Switch:
	#   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
	#SSLEngine on
 
	#   A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
	#   the ssl-cert package. See
	#   /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/README.Debian.gz for more info.
	#   If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
	#   SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.
	#SSLCertificateFile    /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
	#SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
 
	#   Server Certificate Chain:
	#   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
	#   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
	#   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
	#   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
	#   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
	#   certificate for convinience.
	#SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server-ca.crt
 
	#   Certificate Authority (CA):
	#   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
	#   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
	#   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
	#   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
	#         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
	#         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
	#SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
	#SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt
 
	#   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
	#   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
	#   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
	#   of them (file must be PEM encoded)
	#   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
	#         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
	#         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
	#SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
	#SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl
 
	#   Client Authentication (Type):
	#   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
	#   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
	#   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
	#   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
	#SSLVerifyClient require
	#SSLVerifyDepth  10
 
	#   Access Control:
	#   With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
	#   on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
	#   variable checks and other lookup directives.  The syntax is a
	#   mixture between C and Perl.  See the mod_ssl documentation
	#   for more details.
	#<Location />
	#SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
	#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
	#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
	#            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
	#            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20       ) \
	#           or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/
	#</Location>
 
	#   SSL Engine Options:
	#   Set various options for the SSL engine.
	#   o FakeBasicAuth:
	#     Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
	#     the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
	#     user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
	#     Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
	#     file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
	#   o ExportCertData:
	#     This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
	#     SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
	#     server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
	#     authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
	#     into CGI scripts.
	#   o StdEnvVars:
	#     This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
	#     Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
	#     because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
	#     useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
	#     exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
	#   o StrictRequire:
	#     This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
	#     under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
	#     and no other module can change it.
	#   o OptRenegotiate:
	#     This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
	#     directives are used in per-directory context.
	#SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
	#<FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
		#SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
	#</FilesMatch>
	#<Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
		#SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
	#</Directory>
 
	#   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
	#   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
	#   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
	#   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
	#   approach you can use one of the following variables:
	#   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
	#     This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
	#     SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
	#     the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
	#     this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
	#     mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
	#   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
	#     This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
	#     SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
	#     alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
	#     practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
	#     this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
	#     works correctly.
	#   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
	#   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
	#   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
	#   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
	#   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
	#   "force-response-1.0" for this.
	BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
		nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
		downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
	# MSIE 7 and newer should be able to use keepalive
	#BrowserMatch "MSIE [17-9]" ssl-unclean-shutdown
 
#</VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

In realtà non ho fatto altro che mettere un # in tutto tranne che in

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
 
</IfModule>

e ho fatto il mio script di Virtual Hosts nel file default che è presente sempre nella stessa cartella. Ecco quello che ho fatto:

<VirtualHost *:443>
	ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
 
	DocumentRoot /var/www
	<Directory />
		Options FollowSymLinks
		AllowOverride None
	</Directory>
	<Directory /var/www/>
		Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
		AllowOverride None
		Order allow,deny
		allow from all
	</Directory>
 
	ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
	<Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
		AllowOverride None
		Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
		Order allow,deny
		Allow from all
	</Directory>
 
	ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
 
	# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
	# alert, emerg.
	LogLevel warn
 
	CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
 
    Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
    <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
        Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
        AllowOverride None
        Order deny,allow
        Deny from all
        Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128
    </Directory>
 
	#   SSL Engine Switch:
	#   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
	SSLEngine on
	SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.pem
	#   A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
	#   the ssl-cert package. See
	#   /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/README.Debian.gz for more info.
	#   If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
	#   SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.
	#SSLCertificateFile    /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
	#SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
 
</VirtualHost>

Non ho fatto altro che scrivere sotto al VirtualHost che già è presente /etc/apache2/sites-avaiable/default. Dopo bisogna dire su quale porta ascolta il nostro VirtualHosts. Cosa molto semplice bisogna scrivere nel file ports.conf:

NameVirtualHost *:443
Listen 443

nel modo seguente io ho configurato il ports.conf:

# If you just change the port or add more ports here, you will likely also
# have to change the VirtualHost statement in
# /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default
# This is also true if you have upgraded from before 2.2.9-3 (i.e. from
# Debian etch). See /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/NEWS.Debian.gz and
# README.Debian.gz
 
#NameVirtualHost *:80
#Listen 80
 
NameVirtualHost *:443
Listen 443
 
 
#<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    # If you add NameVirtualHost *:443 here, you will also have to change
    # the VirtualHost statement in /etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl
    # to <VirtualHost *:443>
    # Server Name Indication for SSL named virtual hosts is currently not
    # supported by MSIE on Windows XP.
   # Listen 443
#</IfModule>
 
#<IfModule mod_gnutls.c>
    #Listen 443
#</IfModule>

notate che io ho commentato l'ascolto nella porta 80, perchè voglio solo
attivare il mio https che sta sulla porta 443.

Dopo questo lavoro bisogna nuovamente riavviare apache2, con il comando:

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Avviare il nostro browser su https://127.0.1.1 è vi vedrete salire l'accettazione del certificato una volto accettato il vostro server ssl sarà configurato e funzionante.

Adesso che è tutto funzionante se siete interessati ad avere una directory pubblica nella vostra Home non ci resta che attivare il modulo UserDir.

Attivazione del Modulo UserDir e creazione della Public_html

Per avere la nostra public_html per prima cosa bisogna creare una directory nella nostra home. Quindi dal nostro profilo $ mkdir public_html, adesso che abbiamo creato la nostra directory. Attiviamo il modulo userdir in questo modo da root dare questo comando:

# a2enmod userdir

al solito bisogna riavviare apache2 con /etc/init.d/apache2 restart.

Mette qualche file dentro la public_html e digita den vostro Browser https://127.0.1.1/~il nome della vostra home/ ed ecco la vostra parte di home pubblica.
Adesso per rendere Php utilizzabile anche dentro questa directory bisogna fare delle variazioni allo script php5.conf.
Perchè sia in Debian Squeeze che in Ubuntu 10.10 stranamente gli script Php non possono essere visualizzati quindi adesso non miresta che farvi vedere cosa fare al
file php5.conf.
Aprite questo file che si trova in /etc/apache2/mods-availabe/php5.conf
e commentare alcuna cose ecco cosa fare:

<IfModule mod_php5.c>
    <FilesMatch "\.ph(p3?|tml)$">
	SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
    </FilesMatch>
    <FilesMatch "\.phps$">
	SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source
    </FilesMatch>
    # To re-enable php in user directories comment the following lines
    # (from <IfModule ...> to </IfModule>.) Do NOT set it to On as it
    # prevents .htaccess files from disabling it.
  #  <IfModule mod_userdir.c>
      #  <Directory /home/*/public_html>
          #  php_admin_value engine Off
       # </Directory>
   # </IfModule>
</IfModule>

Dopo aver fatto questo riavviate come al solito apache2 con
/etc/init.d/apache2 restart e provate un uno script php dentro la directory
public_html.

Adesso noterete che tutto funziona a dovere.